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Sprinklers shower development

The use of the shower is a high proportion of domestic water consumption. Taking into account that the shower use a rate of about 20 liters per minute, and the average time a shower is estimated at 5 minutes, the volumes consumed by shower can be up to 100 liters. This figure would be very worrying if it were not for the fact that there are really very simple options to reduce this amount by up to 50%.

Correct action to reduce the amount of water consumed in the shower should be directed in two ways:

• Limit shower time optimizing water use (close the tap while soaping, avoid long time under water, etc.).

• Install saving technology that reduces the output rate.

Although the technical description of the mechanisms of savings are based on heads telephone showerheads, being the most widespread in homes, all specifications can be applied to sprinklers embedded in own wall of public facilities (locker rooms businesses, sports centers, etc.).

Judging from the location of savers systems themselves, we differentiate between those located internally in the head, and that can be placed externally, as an additional mechanism.

Usually external devices offering fit most of the heads, which reduces in a simple and quick way water consumption. However, usually they have certain rejection by the consumer, since in some cases have a less integrated in the shower design.

Efficient sprinkler Drips n Drops shower

Saving water efficient showers are achieved through different mechanisms that can be combined with each other depending on the model chosen.

Air mixture

One of the most extended options is to mix air with water so that the jet provides the same sensation of consuming approximately half wet water. This measure is often accompanied by an increase in output pressure and droplet size. This effect is known commercially as perlizado .

Reduction of the diffusion area

Usually, part of the water coming out of a shower head does not take advantage properly. This is because, to increase the feeling of abundance and misunderstood comfort, it tends to overestimate the broadcast area. Simple concentration gets outlet jet showers in considerable savings efficient without reducing the amount of useful water per unit area.

Flow Reduction

Reducing the flow, adjusting it to consumer fair values, it is the option that should serve as the basis for any efficient element.

The flow is considered right (at 3 bar pressure) is 10 liters per minute at European level or 2.5 gallons per minute in the United States (approximately 9.5 liters per minute). This flow ensures adequate service and quite away from the 20-liter, this same pressure, offer many traditional shower heads.

When reducing the flow is important to consider that the water pressure is not constant in all facilities, even having variations depending on the schedule.

Therefore, we will classify the flow restrictors as possible adaptation to pressure variations. Thus, we find two main groups: static flow restrictors and flow controllers.

The operation of the limiters static flow is simply based on the decrease in water flow section, thus diminishing the amount of water passing through a point. Generally they work properly usual service pressures (1 to 3 bar), but do not guarantee optimal operating conditions at low pressures. In the market they are recognized only guarantee a certain flow reduction (usually between 40 and 50%) in a given range of pressures, without securing a fixed rate.

There are different commercial presentations, among which the throttles, reducing the flow area by increasing the thickness of the walls of the ducts, and disks with holes in the center graduates. As more advanced option, you can purchase models with interchangeable disks with different rankings. These allow us, at least, an adjustment to the general conditions of our facility.

The flow controllers, more sophisticated than previous ones , but similar in external appearance, behave dynamically depending on the pressure to which they are subjected. They are usually composed of a plastic part shaped ring located at a point where all the water must pass. When the pressure on the rubber is very high, it is tensioned, reducing the water flow, whereas when the pressure decreases, the ring relaxes, increasing the passage section.

Different types of plastic compounds and combination with certain sections allow to guarantee a fixed flow within standard pressure (reaching up to 5 bar pressure).

Some phone showers offer different options from the head itself, launching other systems that also promote water conservation.

Among the most common alternatives highlights the so – called fragmented, which produces a fine dispersion of droplets of water (fog), creating a greater sense of moisture with less flow. This group may also include the jet pulsing or champagne, based on an almost imperceptible interruption of water flow performed repeatedly. In principle function of this mechanism it is to cause a sensation of massage (and well as offer commercially), but indirectly also get a water saving.

External additional mechanisms

As discussed above, there are different options on the market that allow us to reduce consumption without replacing our shower head. The main mechanisms are:

flow reducers. Generally static type (limiters), can be threaded onto the shower hose, both the beginning and the end. In addition, different brands offer their most common models for a number of accessories (disks, reducers, etc.) that are placed inside the shower head, thus eliminating any unwanted aesthetic effect.

Switches water flow. This simple system is placed at the beginning of the shower hose and its only mission is to block the passage of water without having to turn off the faucet. Thus it is avoided manipulate mixture of water (especially in faucets Single – hole), facilitating closing operations at times when water flow is not essential (soaping). There tailored specifically for sprinklers embedded in wall elements.

Nasal and full face masks new

NYSE expands its ultra-light, comfortable, and the winner of a line AirFit ™ premium masks today with new options of nasal and full face. The complete compact protective mask AirFit F10 and compact nasal mask AirFit N10 continue the story of the 25 years of the company comfortable and effective solutions innovation to treat sleep-breathing disorganized.

“These new masks personify the type of CPAP Sydney, which is all about providing the lightweight patients comfortable, and solutions trusted to treat his sleep disorganized breathing,” said Jon Yerbury, vice president of Strategic Business Unit Breathing Sleep -Desorganizado ResMed. “We know that if the mask is not right, nothing else matters;the comfort of the mask is the key to staying in therapy. Like all our masks, we invest in the decades of research to ensure that the patient-centric projects were at the core of the same type of AirFit . ”

AirFit F10 is the Protector Full Compact Mask The Lighter Market

The AirFit F10 delivers comfort, stability, and performance in a simple and elegant design, and has all the benefits of a full traditional mask in a compact form. Patients also benefit from its circular widespread ventilation that directs the exhaled air more evenly and is less likely to rebound off objects or the surrounding members of the base, creating a quieter environment of sleep.

In ResMed test, patients preferred the AirFit F10 on the main compact full face mask ResMed in terms of seal, comfort, stability, and accessibility. The AirFit F10 is the complete mask the clearest in the market, and its four-piece design makes it easy to clean and keep it.

The lack of support from his forehead makes AirFit F10 discreet without sacrificing stability, and an audible system retention cushion-to-frame three-click improves usability. The Air ™ cushion mask dual-wall spring provides a comfortable and secure seal gently conforming to the face.

Snap Simplified Offer AirFit N10 and view Line Clara

The compact nasal mask lightweight AirFit N10 stands out with its visual comfort and freedom in a project easy to use. In ResMed test, patients preferred the AirFit N10 on other nasal masks market leader in terms of accessibility, comfort, the unobtrusiveness, and stability.

In less than 3 ounces, the AirFit N10 has a sleek frame under-eye that offers discreet support without sacrificing stability, and as a result, provides a clear line of sight. Its Air Cushion changed dual-wall spring provides a comfortable and effective seal when the staples of EasyClick headwear make appropriate dress fixing the headgear to the frame easily. The pipe lightweight, flexible, integrated and minimum parts add to the appeal of the nasal mask.

A variety of sizes for the perfect setting

Shades of AirFit F10 and AirFit N10 come in a variety of sizes and are also available in For Your versions designed specifically for female patients and its original anatomy.Both Shades featuring headwear SoftEdge ™ for added comfort.

The AirFit F10 comes in small, medium, and large with blue headgear, and For Your versions with color pink headgear in extremely small sizes, small, and medium.

The AirFit N10 is available in small sizes, standard and wide with blue headgear, and For Your version with color pink headgear small size.

The AirFit F10 ResMed and AirFit N10 begin to send in the US, Canada, and Latin America today. Join the AirFit award-winning P10, a nasal mask pillows, launched in early 2014. The AirFit P10 recently won a prestigious award Red Dot Product design for 2014. Red Spot is the competition most of the project of the world.

Managing relationships with suppliers (SRM)

Managing supplier relationships

The term “management of supplier relationships” (SRM, Supplier Relationship Management) refers to the use of technologies by an enterprise to improve delivery mechanisms of its suppliers.As with managing employee relations , this concept is based on the vendor relationship management.

The purpose of the SRM is to allow the company to improve communication with its various suppliers, share with them a methodology, business terms and information and enhance familiarity between them in order to optimize the delivery process. In turn, the SRM is also intended to familiarize providers with the core business of the company and its various products to ensure supplies custom process.

SRM processes

SRM solution editors generally define a process comprising four large stages:

  • Cooperative design : is the integration of supply problems from the time the product by involving suppliers via a cooperative design tool while ensuring minimum costs at all levels is designed.
  • Identification of suppliers (also supply ): it aims to identify and qualify potential suppliers according to their costs, production capacity, delivery and quality assurance. At the end of this stage, the best suppliers are invited to tender.
  • Vendor Selection : Performed by a reverse auction mechanism (in English reverse auctions ) where the functions of buyer and seller are reversed. The SRM tools have, generally offers an interface that allows three types of applications (commonly called “Request for x” and writtenSDx “):
    • SDC ( Request , English Request For Quotation ), ie, a simple request for price quote regarding relatively common products. The supplier submitting the lowest price is almost always selected.
    • RFP ( Request for Proposal , English Request For Proposal ), ie a request for suppliers tosubmit a commercial proposal specifying not only price but also information about the company, its solvency, production capacity, inventories and delivery times , etc. It chooses the supplier in accordance with a selection system that allows evaluating the proposals according to different criteria.
    • SDI ( request , English Request For Information ) is issuing a simple request for information about products and services offered by providers; It does not necessarily imply that no offer is made.
  • Negotiation : its purpose is to formalize the contract between the company and the supplier that has been selected. It is likely that clauses related to logistics, payment terms, quality of service or any other particular obligation to be included.

Literary Tip: Some keys to the proper development of the novel


If we focus on the development once it has started writing the best novel, and has a character or another in a conflict, the reader is already interested in history, at least in these first few pages.

It is time that the author begins to develop the story, shaping the conflict and characters.

From that moment the writer has to combine tension with calmness, stillness action . And that dosing information the reader ‘s interest will remain, as will want to continue reading in search of that information. Once the writer has found the start that has placed the character in a conflict, it’s time to continue.

You can not be resolved on the first pages because then you have completed the story.

We must continue and can not be artificially lengthening the narrative, but looking for the way that this conflict is complicated and the character or characters have to continue confronting him.

In addition to bringing the conflict to the reader, the writer must also approach it the characters, the reader to feel close, close.


In a novel not only be a story, there will be more small subplots that help enhance the main, they are serving the main story.

Moreover, it will arrive sometime in the end, but must do so that does not seem forced. Maybe the writer has built a good story, but if it fails in the end, fail the whole story. The outcome is necessarily credible, it must seem natural, and not be predictable nor instructive. It is preferable to avoid the moral. With the end you have to teach the reader, with the end have to close the story.

When the writer begins to write a story, you can not know what will be the end exactly. Yes you know where your story is going, but this is not knowing what will be the final outcome of the conflict.And it is that the stories are becoming as they are created.

Finally, history can not be created thinking all the time in the recipient of creation because it is a personal exercise.


Community participation and needs assessment

Community participation is understood as a collective awareness of thewhole community, factors that hinder growth through critical reflection and promotion of associative and organizational forms that facilitate the common good; that is, it is intended link the community for:

Research of their own problems, needs and resources.

Formulation of projects and activities.

Implementation of joint projects between communities and institutions.

Evaluation of the activities performed in each project.

Sometimes with our participation at the local level in our municipality, citizens can express our problems and we can participate in local decisions that affect us.

Participation has different aspects , on the one hand participation in the community, this is what we call community participation, through it our community is organized against adversity, or simply with the aim of achieving greater welfare ensuring development community.

But there is another type of participation, citizen participation through which a closer relationship between the community and authorities established ie it is a form of collaboration to achieve a hearing and make such that our municipality takes over the construction of a small bridge, or a soup kitchen.

One way to participate is to identify problems and needs, to achieve their integration in the definition of policies, programs or development projects.

The importance of citizen participation lies among other things:

Citizens can make to the authority of our needs, demands or suggestions.

Citizens can participate from the process of identifying needs, project formulation, implementation, evaluation and monitoring contributing according to our possibilities.

With the participation of the population in the local development process, responsibility and care of the work is guaranteed, the community is responsible, monitors their own development. a new attitude of the villagers to the local authorities so originates, not expect them to attend all their problems, if not resolve the population that are within their means, and trying to ensure the general welfare.

Why citizen participation is necessary?

Through citizen participation, in an orderly and organized manner, you can start climbing the first step to development of the municipality and therefore our own development.

Organized way communities can take part in decision making, prioritizing actions based on their needs and available resources in coordination with local authorities.

With citizen participation is involving the most disadvantaged social subjects in defining strategies and profit sharing.

Involving people can collaborate in improving care and public services in their community.

Requirements for public participation

The main requirement is the organization of the community to work together and to work with other organizations whether the municipality or other organization as an international body.

There are other requirements that are necessary to involve, among others are:

They must assume responsibilities and obligations.

Channels must be kept fluid communication with the authorities and the general population .


The diagnosis of community needs


Knowing our own situation is not a matter of mere information or curiosity.This is progress in awareness about the issues and elements that are obstacle for individual or group development and is doing so through a collective learning, based on the exchange of experiences and the recovery of historical memory, ie the memory of the community. The diagnosis has a high educational value to the extent that we all learn   from each and enrich us with the experience and knowledge of all.

To understand that is a diagnosis, just give the meaning of this word for medicine, so we will understand better. Making a diagnosis in medicine means finding out the state of health of a person and in the case of illness, determine the why and the most urgent needs for healing. If this definition is moved to the reality of our community, make a diagnosis will determine the status of our community, identify the problems faced and find a solution to the problems of most importance.

Through participatory diagnosis people same analyzes, he draws conclusions, at all times exercised their power of decision, is aware of what others are doing, offers his effort and experience to carry out a work in common. The point of all this is to incorporate as many people, for it can follow two paths:

The organization commissions a group of people who make a diagnosis and the rest is agreed to offer their support.

All members of the organization directly involved in the diagnosis.

Participatory assessment constitutes a rich learning process and a dynamic educational guidance, to make knowledge accessible to people and ask everyone to offer their support and experience.

We always tend to relate education to school, but there is another very valid school: the life of the members of a community. No one is totally ignorant, there are always useful knowledge and experience to address and resolve situations.

When such knowledge and experiences are shared through group reflections, through discussions, conversations, everyone learns from others; the wealth that a being has achieved throughout his life, as namely in terms of experience, does not remain locked in the walls of his house.

Participatory assessment is a good way to end the lack of communication, experience and knowledge among members of a community. In conclusion we can define the diagnosis and the procedure by which the nature and extent of the needs or problems set that affect our community.

With the diagnosis a hierarchy is established, ie in order of importance the needs or problems in terms of the benefits to provide, the greater the advantages and affect a greater number of people more priority we give to that problem-need.

The diagnosis must include the resources available to the community, people who can work, money that can muster to go about solving the problem or determine which national or international body can help us solve our problem, to ask for help.

What profit has a diagnosis?

Identifies the historical development of the community.

Possible to identify the most important problems and needs and act with full knowledge of that reality.

It helps to motivate the community to identify their reality and gain levels of awareness of their transformative role.

It is in a process of collective learning from knowledge dialogue.

It promotes levels   of communication and community involvement.

Allows decentralize power and empower   the community.

It generates autonomy to improve social conditions.

It helps unite the community to act   collectively.

Steps we must take to make the diagnosis:

Identification of the problem or issue:

a.)       Consider all that is the problem?

b.) It       is problem for all?

c.)       is a priority issue?

Context analysis of the problem or issue:

a.)       How do you explain the population the problem?

b.)       How it is explained from the point of view of the social situation that the community lives?

Prioritization (importance) of problems or issues:

Is the population that determines that this and no other, will diagnose the problem.

The information we have:

Information may be sufficient, but we have to prove. Otherwise he will leave, no matter how small the problem, a passive partial diagnosis yet.

Information we need:

This point can take precedence over the above. It is possible to first assess all the information we need and then specify whether or not she is in the community.

Anticipating the future using the information collected:

a.)       clarify where we want to go.

b.)       Determine the time you want to achieve that objective.

. c)       Determine the resources are in place to achieve this goal: time people, relationships with institutions, etc.

d.) To       determine the next steps, the time and resources required for each.

e.)       Anticipate correction mechanisms actions on the fly, in case problems arise.

Planning steps for addressing the problem or issue: Plan means a plan, from all of the above: time, resources and activities. Here responsibilities are distributed according to capacity and time availability. tasks are assigned and not everyone can do everything.


Adaptation of the text prepared by Francisco Javier López Alonso, grab the pdf version here hush hush.



In Mexico City, the elderly have guaranteed their rights in various activities and services that gives the city government, such as “Mornings Movie” program through which free cinema xmovies8 is offered for this sector of the population and implements the right to culture, entertainment, healthy development and recreation, said the head of government, Miguel Angel Mancera Espinosa.

By attending the “Mornings Movie” at a cinema located at Avenida Universidad, he said that access to this benefit is only necessary to show the card Alimony, same as in its new edition contained in the back, the legend allusive to this program.

Accompanied by Secretary of capital Social Development (Sedesol), Rosa Icela Rodríguez Velázquez, Havana’s president thanked the CEO of Operation Cinépolis, Miguel Mier Esparza, the conjunction of synergies to carry out this program that allows to provide each elderly which has its card alimony the opportunity to attend a function of free cinema once a fortnight, Monday through Friday before 15:00 pm in the Cinépolis complexes and Cinemex chains. You can also watch the movie via stream.

To guarantee this right to leisure, culture and recreation, Sedesol launched along with businessmen in the film industry, the “Mornings Movie” program, benefiting 480,000 adults over 68 years successors of the Alimony .

The exercise of the rights of older adults and the daily task accomplished by performing the Sedesol, through the Institute for the Care of the Elderly (IAAM) in collaboration with other agencies.

Mancera Espinosa said that Cinépolis thought of the social part and demonstrated the importance of this program for the effort of another company as Cinemex would join; “We will continue to develop more programs like this, and more care for the elderly because it is our vocation in the city, it is the job of every day”.

In this regard, Icela Rosa Rodriguez said that free cinema is the new benefit that the Government of the CDMX has implemented in favor of and the elderly; “We want to see them happy living an age fullness, and maintain an active, dignified and autonomous old age.”

The Government of the City will continue to work he stated that older adults have guaranteed social rights; “We will continue to work to use their free time in recreational activities such as danzón Thursday, social tourism or engaged in Senior Schools”.

Meanwhile, Miguel Mier Esparza emphasized that the “Mornings Movie” program from putlocker only takes place in Mexico City, “is a program that we are happy to participate, support and back and meet with authorities such as the Federal District where programs like this are released. We are pleased to associate ourselves and see that gradually this program grows. ”

Today was held the screening of the film “The Amazing Spider-Man 2” for 330 beneficiaries. The aim is to advance and strengthen public policy Alimony, through actions to promote active aging and broaden the spectrum of human rights of the Elderly in the city.


©2003 First Suburbs Development Council